Veterinary advice should be sought from your local veterinarian before applying any treatment or vaccine. Not sure who to use? Look up veterinarians who specialize in poultry using our directory listing. Find me a Vet


Avian Mycotoxicosis

Mycotoxicoses are diseases resulting from consumption or exposure to mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, especially ducks. They are produced by various molds belonging primarily to the species of the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium genera. Mycotoxins are produced both pre- and post-harvest in crops and other feed and food commodities. They have also been isolated and in some cases, abundant in straw, dust, materials used for animal bedding, certain pasture grasses, hay, medicinal herbs, fruits and nuts.

Ingestion of mycotoxins can cause acute, overt disease with high morbidity and death to chronic, depressed resistance to pathogens and reduced productivity. Chronic ingestion of low levels of mycotoxins can cause a wide range of metabolic, physiologic, and immunologic disturbances in ducks. The European Union (EU) and the Federal Department of Agriculture (FDA) in the United States, has established limits for several mycotoxins that are regulated.

MycotoxinExposure EffectsRegulatory limits for animal feed
Aflatoxins (AF)liver damage, tumors, gastrointestinal dysfunction, reduced productivity, birth defects, suppressed immune systemEU: <20 ppb

For starter and grower feeds, corn, and peanut products intended for poultry feed, excluding cottonseed meal: <20 ppb

Laying hen feed, corn and peanut products intended for mature poultry: <100 ppb

Cottonseed meal intended for all poultry: <300 ppb
Citrininkidney damage, watery fecal droppings, reduced weight gain, anemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, reduced blood pHEU/FDA: No restrictions set
Cyclopiazonic acidPoor weight gain and feed conversion, reproductive tract impairmentEU/FDA: No restrictions set
ErgotamineTissue necrosis, neurological signsEU/FDA: No restrictions set
Deoxynivalenol (DON)Damages the epithelial intestinal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract, inhibits protein synthesisEU: < 5 ppm

FDA (only advisory level, does not enforce): < 10 ppm for grain and grain by-products and < 5 ppm for complete feeds

FumonisinsDamages the intestinal barrier of the GI system, decreases nutrient absorptionEU: < 20 mg/kg

FDA: < 50 mg/kg
Ochratoxin A (OTA)Weight loss, granular degeneration in the epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltration and activation of capillary endothelium in the kidney and liver; degenerative changes and depletion of lymphoid organsEU: < 0.1 mg/kg

FDA: No restrictions set
Oosporeinkidney damage, extensive visceral gout, dehydration, reduction in feed intake, decreased egg productionEU/FDA: No restrictions set
SterigmatocystinDecreased egg production, reduced feed intake, pale egg shells, liver impairment, embryo malformations and mortalityEU/FDA: No restrictions set
T-2 Toxins (T-2)Oral lesions, suppressed immune system, irritation, hemorrhage, and necrosis of the digestive tract.EU/FDA: No restrictions set
Zearalenone (ZEA)Reproductive damage, egg shell quality, problems with vitamin D3 metabolismEU/FDA: No restrictions set
Certain types of fungi and mycotoxins are attracted to particular crop species, climates, and weather events, and their distribution differs across geographical regions.
The effects of mycotoxins vary widely in ducks and depend on many factors such as whether there is co-contamination with multiple types of mycotoxins, amount (dose) ingested, duration of exposure, species, age, stress level, diet, and immune system. Ducks can develop an acute condition or chronic due to mycotoxins. Diagnosis of mycotoxins in ducks can be difficult, due to a number of complicating factors which include:
  • Mold growth is not uniform in feed, which makes testing feed samples difficult, slow and expensive.
  • Usually there are multiple mycotoxins involved, making diagnosis difficult as there are additive and even synergistic interactions.
  • Mycotoxins affect more than one body system simultaneously.
  • Not all mycotoxins can be detected in routine mycotoxin testing by commercial laboratories.
  • Forage (hay, silage) and animal bedding (straw, shavings ) are not regulated for the presence of mycotoxins.
Often times, symptoms are generalized and similar to that caused by many other diseases. Also, since chronic cases involve the ingestion of low levels of mycotoxins over a period of times, feed, bedding and pasture contamination is often overlooked. Samples of at least 500g (1lb) of suspected contaminated feed or ingredient should be properly collected in separate containers and promptly submitted to a feed testing laboratory for analysis. Ducks are highly susceptible, and a minimum toxic dose is 0.03 mg/kg of contaminated feed.


Feed refusal
Blackening of the toes and beak
Decreased egg production
Impaired egg quality
Oral lesions
Altered feathering
Increased water intake
Weight loss or stunted growth
Poor skin


  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Mycotoxin Multiresidue screen
  • RT iq-PCR assay


MethodMethod Summary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own duck "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
ProbioticsHave showed benefit at reducing the harmful effects of mycotoxins
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)
Vitamins E and COral supplementation of additional vitamins might partially counteract the toxicity of infection with multiple mycotoxins
Banana peeldried banana peel added to feed
Turmeric extract (Curcuma longa))
Bacillus subtilis1000g/t added to diet helps offset the negative effects of mycotoxins
Black cumin (Nigella sativa)
Yeast extract (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)1 g/kg added to diet
Neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW)Soaking contaminated foods in 60mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) for 15 minutes at room temperature
Mycofix SelectProvides some protective effects against the toxins
Beer fermentation residue (BFR)1% of feed, reduced severity of the effects of aflatoxins
SeleniumAdding sodium selenite (0.6 mg/kg)
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract500 ppm

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Mycotoxicosis in a Chickens A disease syndrome characterized by raised yellowish-white lesions in the oral cavity was observed in several commercial broiler flocks. Growth rates were depressed, and 10% died. Fowl pox was ruled out by infectivity tests in susceptible birds with lesion material. A similar outbreak occurred in fancy pigeons fed visibly moldy feed. The oral lesions in pigeons contained large numbers of avirulent Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Identical oral lesions were produced in the laboratory by feeding chickens small concentrations of fusariotoxin T-2 produced by the fungus Fusarium tricinctum. Ref


  • Store feed in a sealed, rodent-proof container that contains no holes.
  • Do not let food ever get damp. Moisture is the number one instigator for mold growth. Keep under 14% moisture.
  • Feed should be inspected regularly for temperature, insects, and wet spots.
  • During wet weather ducks should not have access to compost areas and uneaten decaying fruits and vegetables should be removed from these areas at all times.
  • Ensure your birds do not eat potting mixes and plant fertilizers as these are common sources of toxic molds and bacteria.


Age Range

Young ducklings are most sensitive.

Risk Factors

  • Improper feed storage
  • High humidity levels
  • Insect infestation
  • Environmental stresses
  • Concurrent vitamin or mineral deficiencies
  • Living in a dusty, overcrowded environment
  • Exposure to moisture